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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of nerve cells in part of the brain called the substantia nigra. This leads to insufficient dopamine in the brain and prevents the brain from sending messages to regulate body movements.


Common symptoms:

  1. Movement - tremors in the arms and legs, slowness of movement, difficulty when starting and stopping
  2. Muscles - stiff, face lacks expression
  3. Balance - inability to stand up straight, leaning forward, loss of balance, tendency to fall
  4. Others - softness of voice, constipation


Care skills:

1. Diet

- Use of assistive devices (e.g. non-slip mat, straw)

- Sit up and eat with your body straight and head slightly bowed forward

- Avoid food that are too dry, slippery or sticky

- Encourage slow chewing

- Encourage the patient to eat high fibre foods (e.g. fruit and vegetables) and drink plenty of water


2. Choose clothing that is simple and easy to wear

- Clothing with wide collars, large buttons, and buttons on the chest

- Elasticated trousers

- Velcro shoes


3. Communication

- Reduce noise disturbances and maintain visual contact with the patient

- Use simple questions to guide the patient

- Encourage patients to speak slowly, using single words, simple phrases and body language

- Use written words or pictures


4. Psychological

- Pay attention to changes in mood and behaviour so that patients with depressive tendencies can be diagnosed early on


For more information, please consult your doctor or a healthcare professional

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